Urticaria or urctaria is a type of skin dermatitis that occurs under the influence of psychogenic or chemical-physical factors. Under the latter implies toxic substances, including those resulting as a result of the activities of pathogenic viruses, for example, when hepatitis. Therefore, if a rash appeared on the body, similar to burns from nettle, contact the dermatologist immediately.
Taking a dermatologist - 1000 rubles. Consultation of the doctor according to the results of the ultrasound, analyzes - 500 rubles.!
What is urticaria
The urticaria is an extensive term that includes a number of diseases with different causes and similar clinical manifestations in the form of pale-pink blisters resembling a nettle burn. The urticaria is always accompanied by a skin itch. Crop the reaction may stress, which is not so dangerous, or toxic substances.
In everyday life it is believed that the wretchedness (rash, spectacular fever) is a lightweight allergic reaction appearing on the skin, which is great delusion.
Causes of Urban: Do not be frivolous
It is believed that with the Hardwriter as a child, every person faced. Someone was delivered after the first strawberry, someone after bathing in cold water, well, and someone had a whole body in front of the exams. The rash was not treated - she quickly passed, and they just remembered about it when a new strawberry was grown.
Hardwriter in adults never appears in the same place. And if the rash and itching is often repeated or do not pass at all, dermatologists talk about chronic urticaria.
The chronic stage occurs for the following reasons ::
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Helicobacter pylori (gastroduodenitis, gastritis in (erosive gastritis), cheilicobacteriosis). To get rid of urticaria, not enough to cope with the causative agent. Helicobacter pylori does not cause a disease, and supports it in the presence of an allergy source.
- Viral hepatitis . With damage to the liver in the blood, the amount of bilirubin increases. Because of the violation of the protein metabolism, a rash appears, which is zudit and itches, especially at night. Antihistamines (anti-allergic) drugs at the same time do not help. Additional symptoms of hepatitis: when hepatitis, the temperature rises, when hepatitis, the rash is accompanied by pains in joints and vomiting.
- Herpes (The 3rd type is accompanied by a rash throughout the body, the 6th type is expressed in red spots as during rubella, 7 and 8 types are complemented by chronic fatigue syndrome).
- ARVI (Infectious diseases cause rash throughout the body).
- Infectious damage to the mucous membrane and pharynx (sinusitis, tonsillites, otitis).
- Urogenital infections (cystitis, vaginitis).
- Autimmune thyroiditis - Inflammation of the tissue of the thyroid gland, causing hormonal disorders.
- System collagenosis - Atrophy of the connective tissue, causing failures in the operation of the internal organs.
- Autoimmune diseases (Systemic lupus, vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis).
- Oncological tumors.
As urctaria manifests itself: symptoms begin with small
Sometimes rash appears the next day after provoking factor, sometimes a week is passed before an allergic reaction occurs. The most unpleasant is a strong itching caused by red spots on the skin. In the light phase, if there is no permanent factor, the urticaria passes.
With exacerbation, the skin becomes dry, covered with a crust, which from constant calculations begins to bleed. On her surface, droplets of Sukrovitsy are visible. Itching is intensified at night. The patient climbs the temperature, he cannot sleep normally, it is hot and uncomfortable. Permanent itching exhausts, there is no salvation from him. The sharp period lasts a few weeks.
Urctaria (urticaria) in the started stage is manifested by the following symptoms:
- A man wakes up in the morning and sees the ethnicity on his face and body.
- During the day, the skin is covered with tubercles, blisters that bloom in the evening.
- During the night, the blisters are so fluffed that they completely merge, forming a crust.
- The body is very complicated, the patient cannot sleep normally, often wakes up and scratching rash.
The main sign of the urban is skin rash. It is localized on the legs below the knee, hands from wrists to the elbow, neck, chest. Itching is so unbearable that the patient is scratching the skin to blood, and in some places ulcers appear.
In severe cases, the lips are scattered like after the injection of silicone. Angina symptoms appear: swells the neck, it hurts to swallow, a voice sits down. If the mucous membranes of digestion organs swell, diarrhea occurs, the bloating, vomiting.
Types of urticaria
The type of urticaria depends on the launch mechanism.
- Allergic urticaria. It is caused by admission inside antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents. These drugs are often prescribed tetracycline, amoxicillin, flomexin, aspirin, ibuprofen, niance. Alcohol can accelerate and strengthen the course of the disease. Antibiotics accumulate in the body, so the problem manifests itself not immediately. The course may be passed, and the urticaria will perform in a couple of weeks.
- Food Urctaria. More often in children after eating some products - fruits (citrus and strawberries), fervent, fish products, nuts and sweets. This kind of urticaria is not dangerous, passes quickly, and arises due to the production of antibodies to a new product.
- Contact Uat . A side effect in professional activities (reaction to Latex in surgeons, allergies to chemicals at cleaners).
- Reaction on the bite of the wasp, blinddown, hornet . The most dangerous manifestation of allergies - Ottop Quincke, when the bite dies after an hour after the bite.
- Reaction for the presence of a virus . Sometimes the rash provokes intoxication with fungal infections (staphylococcus, candidiasis (thrush), tonsillite, pharyngitis). If you cure the disease, redness will disappear on the skin.
- Nervous Square .
In a state of stress, the functioning of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system occurs, the signal system fails occurs, and our body incorrectly interprets the pulses sent by the brain. Hormone stress is highlighted, the vessels are expanded, their walls are stretched and becoming permeable. Endothelium cells, lining vascular and capillary walls, swell, forming red bumps on the surface. This condition is also urticaria.
Classification of urticaria in intensity
By the intensity of the flow of the urticaria happens:
- Acute . Caused by allergenic products, drugs, chemicals, insect bite. It lasts up to 6 weeks, after which it completely disappears.
- Chronic. Over 6 weeks lasts, after which 60% of the symptoms disappear. In 40% they remain and are observed all their life.
Utipical forms of urticaria include the following types:
- Holieregetical . It arises due to the weakening of immunity and an increase in the amount of acetylcholine of the neurotiator involved in the transfer of nerve pulses.
- Adrenergic . It is caused by a sharp release into adrenaline hormone blood. The reason for this is a strong stress or mental excitement. The rash in the form of pale pink blisters is often celebrated in people who have to do not what they like.
- Contact . There is due to direct contact with Allergen (pets, metal jewelry). Disappears immediately after contact with the source of an allergic reaction is broken.
- Aquag . It can be observed when patient with water. Water is not an allergen, but an allergy activator for a certain substance. It often occurs during foreign trips, when the local climate contributes to the development of histamines (mediators), and the water accelerates it.
- Svetq Qinkie. The most acute manifestation of urticaria - Otok Quincke - angioedema enemy with deep lesions of the skin.
During the swelling, Quint is affected not only the surface of the skin, and the mucous membranes of internal organs, in particular, light, esophagus, stomach. The antibodies produced by the body affect the nerve endings and vessels, enhancing their permeability and expanding the lumen. Plasma penetrates through the vascular walls outwards, paralyzed nerve cells reduce the tone of the vessels, provoking the accumulation of the membrane fluid in tissue cells. The strongest edema may occur in the brain, and in the lungs, leading to almost instant death.
What tests are handed over with Harpivny
The urticaria is an allergic reaction, so the tests are aimed at detecting allergen. What tests to hand over the dermatologist solves. The patient can be assigned the following tests:
- Blood test. An increased number of leukocytes indicates an infection that caused rash on the body. Eosinophils are talking about the presence of alien protein allocated by the virus. The EE level shows the state of the immune system.
- Analysis of urine . Slags in the kidneys occur during urinary infections, and because of this, an allergic reaction appears on the skin.
- Biochemistry of blood . The jet protein indicates inflammation, AST and ALT antibodies talk about the toxic effects of drugs on the body. Bilirubin shows the condition of the liver, creatine - the work of the kidneys, urea - the state of the excretory system, glucose is the operation of the pancreas. Any indicator that goes beyond the limits of the norm helps to understand the nature of the urbin.
- Analysis of Cala . Parasites distinguish toxic substances and violate the digestion, which leads to the skin.
- Sex infections smears . Sometimes the cause of the urban is a pathogenic microflora, so the patient gives the strokes from the vagina, urethra, intestines.
- Allergotes (blood for allergies) Need if there are suspicions of food allergies.
- Analysis on antinucleary factor . Aukimmune diseases lead to the fact that the body destroys its own cells, leading to allergies.
- Skin biopsy Bear in suspected oncology.
How to treat Harpivnitsa
The urticaria in acute form lasts about a month, and in chronic form continues all his life, replacing periodically relapses. The treatment of urticaria is reduced to eliminating the source of the reaction and restore the protective barrier of the skin. Only the integrated effect on the disease will help to recover faster.
In parallel with the treatment of the underlying disease, the dermatologist selects and prescribes antihistamines (histamine is a mediator of nerve fibers). They soothe the nerve endings causing itching.
These drugs include:
- Zetrin . Refers to second generation drugs. The active ingredient Cetirizin acts on the receptors selectively, so does not oppress the nervous system and does not cause drowsiness. But does not have such a strong antihistamine action as first generation drugs. Removes itching and ethnicity.
- Tueguil . The preparation of the first generation. The active component of Clemestine inflicts a powerful blow to allergies. Removes itching for 10-12 hours.
- Claritin. Refers to the third generation. At the same time, it does not cause drowsiness and at the same time has an effective electoral action. Removes skin irritation for 24 hours.
In addition to pills, patients prescribe glucocorticoid ointments. They are made on the basis of steroid hormones with a suspension action. They tightly fall on the skin, slowly absorbed, soothing the cut of the skin.
People who collided with the gloomy must understand that any drugs remove the manifestations of the disease only for a while. If you do not find the source of the disease, and do not treat the main disease, the urticaria will remain in the body forever. The result of this will be a painful itching, mass combustion and permanent swelling.
If the disease takes carefully, As a rule, the course of the disease is favorable. With proper treatment of the patient, nothing threatens. lead to death. Cerencing the urticarily quickly and without recurrences can be in a private clinic Diana.
Treatment of urticissian folk remedies
Adults understand that it is impossible to cure such a serious illness of the methods of traditional medicine. But it is possible to ease the condition before taking a dermatologist.
Remove itching for a while helping the bath salt dissolved in water. It is necessary to wash the places of redness with a solution, not rubbing with a washcloth or a towel. It is advisable to give water to dry on the body or simply get into the towel. Then you can apply neutral cosmetic oil odorless and color. It will restore the lipid (fat) barrier and soothes itching. Usually, after the bath, the skin does not bope for 6-8 hours.
Where to cure the urchinets in St. Petersburg
The treatment of urticaria in St. Petersburg is engaged in the department of dermatology in the clinic Diana. The cost of receiving a dermatologist - 1000 rubles. If you have found a mistake, please select the text fragment and click
Hives - This is a disease of an allergic nature, which manifests itself to the formation of blisters on the surface of the skin and on the mucous membranes. Ultimate ultimate rash, rises above the surface of the skin, sometimes painful. The diagnosis of urticaria is established on the basis of typical manifestations of disease and anamnestic data, conducting skin allergic samples. Treatment should include aligning allergen, taking antihistamine preparations, enterosorbents, in severe cases - corticosteroids.
Urtica (from lat. "Urtica" - nettle) - Dermatosis flowing to the formation of blisters or angiootecom. 25% of the population came across the symptoms of urticaria at least once in their lives, while the main part of them are women. The debut of morbidity falls for age up to 40 years, 2-7% of patients make up children. If the contact with the allergen is constant, the urticaria acquires a chronic course. In 40% of cases, the wretchedness is accompanied by an edema quint.
Causes of urticaria
We can provoke the urchinite insect bites, the transfusion of blood components, drugs for vaccination, the use of any medicinal substances, as well as direct direct contact with the allergen or eating foods that can cause allergies. Upholstery rash can be a consequence of allergies to cold or high-temperature exposure, sunlight, vibration, mechanical friction. Directly causal factors may be infectious pathogens (Bakakteria, fungi, parasites). Approximately in third patients, the causes of urticaria remain unknown.
The main mechanism for the formation of blisters on the skin is the emission of a large number of histamine into the blood, which is formed during contact with the allergen. Depending on how the body sensitization is rapidly developing, the urticap may occur during the primary contact or after the multiple effects of allergen, and when the concentration of antibodies in the blood is high enough, the symptoms of urticaria occur. The walls of the capillaries under the action of active substances increase their permeability, the liquid from the vessels is hegan to the dermis and the blister arises, so the urticaria is considered a disease of allergic nature.
Symptoms of Urban
Acute and chronic urticaria
On the skin and mucosa suddenly appear numerous blisters of bright pink color. With the stripping, the main part of the rashes appears within an hour when the concentration of histamine in the blood is still large enough, but a little later, a certain number of blisters may appear, whereas the main part of the skin begins gradually from several elements. In a few hours, the blisters either disappear without a trace, or the second wave of urticaria comes with the formation of new blisters. Chronic urticaria continues months, and sometimes years.
Blisters are eliminating and painful when touching, the skin around them is echoing and hyperemic. Depending on the magnitude of the lesion, the overall, the overall state may not change, or the rise in temperature, malaise and headache is noted.
Chronic forms of urticaria are associated with autoinoxication and are found in diseases of the digestive organs, liver. The foci of chronic infection in the almonds and the bustling bubble, caries and various gliste invasions can also sensitize the body and cause chronic urticaria. With recurrences of urticaria, patients are possible headache, nervousness, nausea and vomiting, sleep disorders, in some cases, the urticaria can be complicated by the edema of the brain shells.
Children's urticaria, or journalus, refers to allergic skin diseases that are developing due to food sensitization against the background of exudative diathesis. In children who are on artificial feeding and in children whose diet does not correspond to age, a nodule-bubble rash arises. Continuous contacts with allergens, insect bites and the presence of infectious diseases and parasites in the body contribute to the development of urticaria.
The resulting blisters are quickly transformed into the pink-brown nodules to 3mm in diameter with a small bubble on top. Because when sculpted the blisters, itching, then the affected skin is quickly macerated, bumps, erosion and bloody crusts appear. Harfish is affected by large folds of the body, the upper limbs are sometimes the elements spread throughout the body. In young children, especially under the age of three, there are dispersal disorders: vomiting, diarrhea, or the opposite of constipation. If the wretchedness takes a chronic sluggish character, then children become sluggish, capricious, there is a loss of appetite and sleep disorders. Because of the maceration, the elements of the urban are infected with the piococcal flora. Hardwriter in children must be differentiated with scabies due to similar clinical manifestations. After seven years, almost all children, the urticaria passes without a trace.
The giant urticaria, or swelling, is characterized by the sudden appearance of swelling of subcutaneous fiber, muscles and fascia, such a shape of the urban arising in the region of the larynx is particularly dangerous, since, with defamious assistance rendered, patients die from asphyxia. The gigantic urticaria is characterized by the presence of diffuse edema, which extends through the move muscles and fascia. Usually, the swelling is kept from several hours to several days and passes without a trace. During the father's swelling, patients are subject to emergency hospitalization for hyposensibizational therapy.
Since the urticaria can provoke various factors, then they separate the cold urticaria when the blisters appear in people sensitive to cold, this is the so-called cold allergy. With hypersensitivity to ultraviolet, a solar uterus appears, people with sensitive skin in the spring-summer period in open areas of the skin appear blisters after solar irradiation. Solar urticaria suffer mainly woman with light skin and blond hair. In the elderly, the urticaria occurs when a sharp change of temperature and can manifest itself both at once and within a few days after changing the temperature regime.
Other forms of urticaria
In some women, the symptoms of the urticaria appear immediately before menstruation, and except for external manifestations does not cause discomfort, sometimes weak itching and minor edema can occur, most often such a shape of the urticaria proceeds with the formation of 10-15 elements in the chest and face. Toxic urticaria is associated with the immediate contact of some plants, insects, fish and animal animals. It may occur when contact with jetsons, poisonous plants. The presence of cats in the house may cause chronic sluggish urticaria.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical manifestations and patient survey. Almost always there is a contact with an allergen, with a deep survey, the sensitization of the body, glides invasion, the presence of foci of chronic infection is detected. Allergological samples are carried out to identify the exact type of allergen.
Treatment of urticaria
The most effective way to treat urticaria is to identify and eliminate allergen. But if there is no possibility to install an allergen or urticaria wearing an episodic character, then local therapy and the reception of antihistamine drugs help to quickly eliminate the symptoms. It is important during the period of treatment to comply with a hypoallergenic diet, not to use perfumery and contact with aggressive substances so as not to provoke a new urticaria attack.
The treatment of urticaria is carried out by a dermatologist and an allergist immunologist. Gele-shaped drugs with anti-loving, coolant, anti-edema and soothing effect are locally prescribed. Diametrden preparation is effective for any forms of urticaria, its action begins immediately after applying the drug to the skin.
Inside shows the reception of antihistamine drugs. Fexofenadine, Loratadine does not cause side effects in the form of drowsiness and violations of attention, and therefore do not interfere with patients to lead a normal lifestyle. Calcium glucanate and calcium chloride, as well as all calcium preparations, reduce the manifestations of allergies. But it is necessary to be careful, since many patients with recurrent urticaries have a hypersensitivity in the intravenous administration of calcium chloride and sodium thiosulfate, although these drugs contribute to the elimination of allergens from the body. In the event that antihistamines are ineffective and with heavy molds of urticaria use corticosteroid therapy. Locally showed low-profile hormone-containing ointments.
In the food historical, the adsorbents, light laxatives and the use of a large amount of liquid for the forced removal of allergen from the body are necessary. Since the urticaria is more common in people with impairment of the vegetative nervous system (vegetative-vascular dystonia), the reception of sedative preparations in the form of courses can completely eliminate the urticule. Outolymphocytotherapy is the newest method in the treatment of urticaria, statistical data indicate the high efficiency of the technique. From the blood of patients, elements of the cell immune system are distinguished and they are subcutaneously introduced after the recurrence of the urticaria.
People prone to the Harpivnice need to refrain from contact with possible allergens. Patients who have an allergic predisposition and have previously diagnosed urticaria, is necessary before the procedures of local anesthesia and to vaccinate antihistamines. It is necessary to carry out a complete allergological examination to identify the spectrum of allergens that can cause unwanted reactions.
Urticaria is a group of diseases (mostly allergic nature), a characteristic symptom of which is a rash on the skin in the form of red blisters.
In Russia, the wretchedness is very common - from 10 to 20% of the population at least once in life, its manifestations were observed. At the same time, most of it takes place in acute form (70-75%), the rest takes a chronic course. WHO (World Health Organization) predicts that the XXI century will become a century of allergies. Each year the number of patients with a form of allergies increases by 5%.
Symptoms and mechanisms for the development of urticaria
The emergence of the main symptoms of urticaria - blisters and redness - is associated with the mechanism of development of the disease. This increases the permeability of vessels and acute swelling in the tissues that surround the vessels.
The leading cage is playing a leading role in the development of urticissal. These are special immune cells, in the granules of which are contained by special biologically active substances (mediators). The most studied from them is histamine. It is because of his actions and the symptoms of urticaria - rash, red, swelling, skin itching.
The rash in the form of blisters appears suddenly on any part of the body, quickly and without a trace passes within 24 hours, and then arises elsewhere. When pressing the center of redness is seen white spot.
Itching begins simultaneously with rash. So manifests the action of histamine for nervous endings.
Depending on the factor, which activated the release of histamine from the granules of fat cells, allocate various types of urticaria.
Children in children may have a deterioration in the overall condition: an increase in body temperature, disruption of the digestive system (diarrhea).
Types of urticaria
There are several urban classifications.
1. By time:
2. By Nature:
Allergic (immune) - is implemented through the development of the immune response, it is often combined with other allergenicabularities (bronchial asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, etc.);
Neallergic - through the direct release of histamine.
3. Due to:
- Allergic urticule Can call:
- Neallergic The form of the disease occurs due to direct influence on the fat cell:
physical factors - such as cold, heat, ultraviolet, radiation, vibration, squeezing;
chemical (provoking factors are solvents, acids, alkali and other chemicals);
some medicines, for example, aspirin;
infectious agents - viruses (adenoviruses, epstein-bar virus, enterovirus), streptococci, helminth, helicalobacter pylori;
with systemic and other chronic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic red lupus);
With a sharp increase in the level of histamine and other active substances in the blood due to the consumption of foods with their high content: eggplants, canned food, nuts, bananas, chocolate and others.
It is also possible is hereditary, psychogenic, as well as idiopathic urticaria (the disease is so called, the reason for which it was not possible to establish).
A wide variety of factors and similar mechanisms for the development of individual species make it difficult to search for the cause. Most often for this requires the help of a specialist.
When and to which doctor to contact
Usually they turn to the doctor:
If the rash applies to a large area;
when increasing symptoms;
when attaching signs of general intoxication;
If the urticaria does not pass independently after eliminating the factor that caused it;
If the disease goes into a chronic form or often recurrences,
It is advisable not to delay the visit to the doctor and come when the first manifestations of the disease arose. Then it will be easier to establish the cause, and the treatment will take less time. In addition, the doctor will recommend what to do for the prevention of urticaria.
Therapist or pediatrician, a dermatologist, and a derivatives of the diagnosis and treatment, can assist in the urban.
Diagnostic procedures for urticaria
Usually the diagnosis of acute urticaria is quite simple. There is enough inspection and questioning the patient about the history of his illness. It is not so easy to find out the cause, and for this, additional research is carried out:
1. Laboratory tests:
3. Allergological tests:
4. Immunological methods.
5. Consultation of related specialists:
First of all, it is important to establish a specialist to establish what kind of nature is the α-allergic or non-allergic. With an allergic form, you can clearly trace the connection of symptoms with the introduction of allergen. It is confirmed by skin, allergological and immunological tests.
Treatment of urticaria
The basic treatment of urticaria is built on the same principles, regardless of the cause of its appearance, and includes:
The elimination of the factor that caused the urticaria: a hypoallergenic diet, the abolition of a medicinal product provoked an allergic reaction, preventing the actions of physical factors;
- For removing the acute state, corticosteroids (dexamethasone) are used, antihistamine preparations of 1 generation with a rapid effect.
- Disinfecting therapy is carried out using special infusion solutions.
With severe exacerbation or accession of edema, patients hospitalized patients.
After the condition has stabilized, there may be an outpatient treatment with the use of antihistamine preparations 2 and 3 generations, sedatives.
- Treatment of the main disease.
At the reception, the doctor will recommend you preventive measures to prevent exacerbations, progression of urticaria and the emergence of its complications.
Publication date November 10, 2017. Updated April 26, 2021.
Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease
Hives - one of the common diseases in the world, characterized by skin rashes in the form of blisters. Sometimes the urticaria is accompanied by an angioedema edema (by the Ottoman Quint - a private case of urticaria, so on. Giant urticaria). [one] Hardwriter is an independent disease, and it should be distinguished from those cases when blisters can only serve as a symptom of other states that do not include: an acute anaphylactic reaction, when conducting skin scarification samples, etc. 
The causes of the occurrence of urticaria can be:
- Medicinal preparations (antibiotics, vitamins, NSPIDs, IAPF, radiocontrase substances);
- food (fish, crustaceans, nuts, milk, honey, nutritional supplements, fruits, spices for cross-allergies in patients with seasonal and year-round allergic rhinitis, allergies to latex);
- insect bites;
- parasites (simplest, helminty);
- Aero allergens (pollen of trees and herbs, wool and excretion of animals, household or book dust, mold),
- viral, bacterial, fungal infections (ENT organs, genitourinary system, digestive system, incl. Helicobacter);
- Chemicals (salts, paints, construction and repair mixes, cosmetics);
- Latex (often from medical workers, as well as those who have to often use Latex products by the nature of their activities);
- psychogenic factors;
- physical activity (including professional sport);
- autoimmune diseases (if there is a systemic red lupus, autoimmune thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.);
- genetic factors;
- UV radiation;
- temperature (high and low);
- pressure (when the skin squeezes tight clothing, bags / decisions, belts, including professional athletes);
- Vibration (often in those who are for professional need to deal with vibration);
- ordinary water. 
If the reason cannot be identified even after a detailed collection of anamnesis and conducting allergic tests, then such a urticule is called idiopathic. Chronic idiopathic urticaria may be related to diseases of the thyroid gland, hormonal imbalance and in very rare cases with a cancer tumor. Even if the urchinic is chronic, it is likely to pass with time.
What is nervous urticaria
Psychogenic factors, such as stress and vivid emotions, can provoke the development of acute urticaria. They can also lead to the exacerbation of the chronic form of the disease.
With such a manifold of provoking factors in a third of patients, the causes of urticaria remain unknown. This is due to the imperfection of diagnostic capabilities and is the subject of scientific search for scientists around the world. [one]
The urticaria is not inclied and from a person to a person is not transmitted.
When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!
Symptoms of Urban
Basic symptoms of urticaria:
- skin itch;
- Rash on the skin in the form of blisters.
Itching the skin is of different intensity - from a slight itch to unbearable, especially in the evening and at night. Blisters can be of different shapes, merge among themselves, to be absolutely any diameter (from several millimeters to several tens of centimeters), and appear on any skin and sometimes mucous membranes. More often pale in the center with reddish on the periphery. In places of accumulation of a large number of loose subcutaneous fatty tissue (eyelids, ears, lips, fingers, genitals), the urbin can manifest itself in its giant form - in the form of swelling. 
The main difference between the rashes is their monomorphism, i.e., rash on the skin during the Hard always Presented only by blister. Blisy is a local skin edema (Mini-Ottok Qincay), which will pale when pressing it on it. The next distinguishing feature of the rash during the Hardeer is that the blisters disappear without a trace within 1-2 days. These are the main distinguishing diagnostic features that do not allow to confuse the urban with any other diseases accompanied by rashes on the skin. Rarely intense rashes may be accompanied by a minor increase in body temperature, reduced pressure, weakness, pain in the epigastria or abdominal abdominal nature, liquid chair. [one]
Hardwriter in children
According to approximate data, the disease occurs in 0.3 − 7% of children [eleven] . The symptoms of urticaria are the same with adults.
Pathogenesis of Harpivnica
The basis of any urticaria is the activation of fat cells with their further degranulation and release of the mediators.
The activation of the fat cells leads various mechanisms:
one. immune (with the participation of the immune system) with the involvement of mediators - histamine, leukotrienes, bradykinin, foregnostinov, fault, etc. Depending on the antigen (provoking factor), urticaria develops:
- Allergic (atopic) when contacting food and aero allergens;
- infectious-allergic in the presence of viral, fungal or bacterial infection;
- An autoimmune in the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, systemic diseases.
2. Pseudo-allergic, nonimune (implemented without the participation of the immune system) under the influence of drugs, product-histamine liberators (chocolate, coffee, strawberry, smoked), physical impact (high and low temperatures, pressure, insolation, vibration, etc.), insect poisons, chemicals , water, etc. 
Furious cells, i.e., those that implement clinical manifestations of the disease, with a chronic urticary in the body of a sick person 10 times more compared to healthy. And they are too "responsive" to provoking factor even with its minimal activity. This condition is called the "phenomenon of transient hyperreactivity" of obese cells. [one]
Classification and stage of urban development
Mix immune (including IgE-mediated), nonimune, autoimmune and mixed mechanisms for the development of urticaria.
|Allergic (immune)||Non-allergic (pseudo-allergic, nonimune)|
|Atopic||infectious allergic||Contact (cold, thermal)||Aquag|
|Dermographic||from physical Load|
IgE-indirect urticaria Related to the production of immunoglobulins specific to allergen. Such a mechanism is characteristic of acute allergic urticaria and meets most often.
Non-IgE-mediated urticaria It occurs without the production of specific immunoglobulins. It is assumed that at the same time there is stimulation of T-lymphocytes (cells of the immune system) and the production of cytokines - signal proteins that enhance the immune response and inflammatory response.
The mechanism for the development of urticaria when exposed to physical factors, such as thermal, is associated with a violation of neuroimmune regulation.
Types of urchitis in the duration of the flow:
- acute urticaria (less than 6 weeks);
- acute recurrent (the duration of remission is greater than the duration of exacerbation, the duration of exacerbation is less than 6 weeks);
- Chronic urticaria (more than 6 weeks). 
According to the degree of activity, the urticaria happens: 
|1||Light (less than 20 blisters per day)||Mild (present, but does not cause anxiety)|
|2||Average (20-50 blisters per day)||Average (worried, but does not affect day activity and sleep)|
|3||Intense (more than 50 blisters per day or merging blisters)||Intense (bothering enough and violates daily activity and sleep)|
In addition, the urbin can be a manifestation of a number of diseases: a hereditary angioedema edema, urticar vasculitis, a pigment urticaria (mastocytosis), a family cold urticaria (vasculitis), etc. 
Complications of urticaria
- Outlet Kivnka, or angioedema in the area of the larynx with the risk of asphyxia development;
- anaphylactic shock and other anaphylactic reaction versions;
- Silent forms of urticaria and angioedema edema Resistant to treatment in outpatient conditions. [one]
Diagnosis of urticaria
To diagnose urticaria, no specific laboratory diagnostics is required, while the identification of the causes of the disease may require this. 
First of all, you need to see the doctor an allergist-immunologist as soon as possible. If there is no rash at the time of the visit - try to provide a doctor of photos / edema photos for the greatest informativeness (provided that the clinical manifestations were not hard and did not require emergency care during photo science).
The doctor allergist immunologist will collect a detailed history of the disease, anamnesis of life, allergemnez, will hold a physical examination (inspection, measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, chdd, body temperature, listening heart and light, replete peripheral lymph nodes, stomach). In most cases, this diagnostic complex will be enough to form a diagnosis and selection of therapy. 
More than 90% of cases, an acute urticaria is stopped for two weeks and does not require a special examination, except in cases where the provoking agent is established. [one]
What tests are handed over with Harpivny
If frequent recurrences of acute urticaria are observed or there is a chronic disease, they will need:
- General analysis of blood with leukocyte formula and SE estimation;
- study of some biochemical blood indicators;
- Survey for the presence of viral hepatitis B, C;
- carrying out provocative tests (ice cube in suspected of a cold urticaria, hot heater with thermal, water compress for an aquagenic, test with physical activity with suspicion of a holinergic urticule, etc.);
- Determination of indicators of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyreoglobulin with intradermal sample with autologous serum;
- Scarification samples with non-infectious allergens and / or the presence of a specific immunoglobulin E in the blood to any allergen. 
If necessary, further diagnostic search will be appropriate:
- Ultrasound of internal organs (thyroid gland, abdominal cavity, small pelvis);
- FGDS or stomach x-ray;
- X-ray study of the chest organs and the apparent sinuses of the nose;
- virological or bacteriological examination for infectious agents;
- Analysis of the level of antibodies to Cag A protein Helicobacter, giardia, helminth;
- Rev Services (ANF, AT to DNA, CRH);
- Studies of the components of the complement C3, C4, etc. 
An important diagnostic test in patients with urticaria are skin samples. [nine] They are informative in patients with atopic urticaries and are negative in patients with pseudo-allergic (subject to the durations of tests and related preparation for testing). [five] Also informative bilirubinov test against the background of an eliminational sample (conducted in the hospital, medicinal hunger is appointed with the reception of water only, shower and cleansing enema). With a positive result of elimination, a decrease or relief of symptoms confirm the allergic genesis of the urban. In patients with an allergic urticaria, the level of bilirubin is reduced or within the normal range, in patients with pseudo-allergic urticura - elevated. [four]
Treatment of urticaria
The treatment of urticaria consists of several stages:
- Elimination or elimination of provoking factors, triggers (cancel or replace drugs, avoid overheating, supercooling, insolation, abandon close clothes and not to wear gravity, minimize physical load, etc.);
- Identification and treatment of chronic infection foci from a profile specialist;
- Compliance with the hypoallergenic diet (in the elimination of the product-allergen, the improvement occurs after 1-2 day with atopic urticaria and after 2-3 weeks with pseudo-allergic);
- Medicase treatment of urticaria in accordance with four therapy lines depending on the effect (Blocators of H1-histamine receptors, anti-styling preparations, anti-IgE preparations, etc.);  Medicines prescribe the attending physician depending on the symptoms of the patient. Antihistamines are two generations:
- First generation preparations For the treatment of urticaria are not used;
- Tapes of the second generation - the main method of treatment of urticaria, these are, for example, dislo -ratadine and left-bezhetyriazine;
- Third generation drugs Do not exist, the mention of them is a marketing stroke.
- Auxiliary therapy, with the ineffectiveness of classical - Blocators of H2-histamine receptors, antidepressants, stabilizers of puffed cell membranes, systemic GKS, immunosensants, photodencensensitizers, hystaglobulin, plasmapheresis, etc.; 
- Glucocorticoids are used with the heavyness of urticaria. For example, in the development of an angioedema edema, prednisolone can be appointed.
- Allergen-specific immunotherapy with a confirmed allergic genesis of urticaria - the most effective method of treatment;
- If asphyxia develops against the background of the angioity edema of the larynx, an emergency intubation or tracheostomy may be required. 
- Enterosorbents - no convincing data on their effectiveness at urticaria, in clinical guidelines and international standards, they are not mentioned.
It is worth remembering that any local therapy in the form of a cream or ointment at uteroids is ineffective and should not be applied.
How to remove itching from urticaria
It is possible to reduce itching with the help of antihistamine preparations of the second generation, anti-tech and anxolytic agents, such as "Atarax". All drugs apply only to the appointment of a doctor and the recommended schemes. Treatment of urticissian folk remedies It is useless and dangerous.
Do I need to call an ambulance at the Harrow
Immediate medical care and hospitalization will be required:
- With severe forms of acute urticaria and angioedema enemy in the area of the larynx with a risk of suffocation. In such cases, the patient loses his voice, his breathing becomes whistling and intermittent.
- When developing anaphylaxis - acute, threatening life of an allergic reaction. Its symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath and decrease in blood pressure.
Also Hospitalization is needed With exacerbations of chronic urticaria and an angioedema edema resistant to outpatient treatment.
Emergency Assistance in Svetok Qink
During the quinque, it follows:
- immediately stop contact with the alleged provoking agent;
- call an ambulance;
- To take one tablet of the antihistamine of the second generation.
Features of nutrition and lifestyle in chronic urticaria
It is recommended not to use confirmed and alleged allergens, nutritional supplements and unknown flavors.
Patients with proven intolerance of acetylsalicylic acid should be excluded by the reception of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Other patients with urticaria can not be taken acetylsalicylic acid and NSAIDs when aggravating the disease.
It is recommended to abandon close clothes and lifting weights, avoid long hiking.
It is also important to exclude factors contributing to supercooling: clothing not for season, cold food and drinks, long stay in the cold.
With solar string, you need to avoid direct exposure to the sun, carrying outdoor clothing and refuse to relax in the southern regions.
Is it possible to take a bathroom or shower at urban
There are no restrictions on water hygienic procedures.
The prognosis for acute uretivnica is usually favorable. The outcome of the disease is influenced by such factors such as age, gender, the duration of the disease, a combination with angioedema edema, the presence of provoking factors, response to drug therapy and elimination activities. [eight] With the complication of the urchinity of the asphyxia caused by the ethiot of larynx, heavy anaphylactic reactions, the stability of heavy forms of urticaria and an angioedema, the forecast may be unfavorable (up to a deadly outcome). This is especially dangerous if medical care is not available, it is impossible to quickly begin emergency medical events, etc. [four]
For what time you can cure a urticaria
Within 6 weeks, the acute urticaria is focused more than 75% of patients. In chronic form, the disease passes from a quarter of patients  . This form of urticaria lasts longer than 6 weeks, sometimes several years, with remission periods or without them.
In order to prevent adverse outcomes of urticaria (if there are appropriate symptoms), it is necessary:
- immediately consult a doctor (primary link, a doctor, an immunologist allergist, in emergency situations - to call ambulance);
- comply with recommendations on a diet, organization of life, lifestyle;
- strictly comply with the recommendations of the doctor for treatment, do not throw drugs at the first signs of improvement, do not change the scheme, multiplicity and dose of drugs recommended by the doctor;
- have in a home and automotive aid kit, in a handbag drugs for emergency relief symptoms, especially if the urticaria is accompanied by an angionaewic edema, acquired a hard form, it does not work completely exclude provoking factor;
- To warn relatives / close / friends about your disease and assistance principles, while the ambulance will rush to the rescue. 
Is it possible to make vaccinations if the child has urticaria
Chronic urticaria - not the reason to abandon vaccinations. With its exacerbation and acute form of illness, we should wait for the weakening of symptoms and then vaccinated.
Urticaria is when one is not beautiful in the morning you wake up from a strong itch. And you see that numerous red blisters went on the body, as if after burning nettle or mosquito bite ... I will immediately say that the probability of such a scenario is not at all small, because with the urticaria there is every fourth.
How to know the Hardwriter?
In general, the urticaria is a collective concept that combines many states in which local skin swelling observed due to the massive release of biologically active substances, mainly histamine.
Irina Yanovna knew about his allergies on cedar nuts, so the composition of dishes in the restaurant cleanedly studied. But who could assume that exactly that day the cook decides to experiment? Already by the end of the party, the woman was eats and swollen their lips, and pink blisters appeared on his forehead. Fortunately, nothing fatal happened - the drugs prudent Irina Yanovna always wore. However, the evening was spoiled.
Rapivine rash is represented by blisters. Many confuse blisters with bubbles, so - no visible fluid blister unlike the bubble does not contain. Yes, blister, or scientific urtica. , - this is Understanding Element rash. It looks like swelling, sufficiently tight to the touch, sometimes the color of the surrounding skin, but more often pink.
See also: Psoriasis - Psychosomatika
The shape of the blister with the urchinet can be oval, arcuate, ring-shaped, polycyclic, linear, target. Elements are characterized by peripheral growth and permission in the center, they are prone to merge. Blisters quickly (for counting hours) appear and quickly pass - the sign is characteristic precisely for urticaria. Then new blisters arise elsewhere.
Home Danger - Sweet Sweet
Very often, the urticaria is accompanied by a condition known as swelling of quinque (angioedema edema), in which the deeper skin layers are affected. At the same time, swelling of the face, eyelids, lips, ears, hands, feet and genitals occurs. Edema is developing from two sides uneven or even can only be on the one hand. With this state, instead of itching, sensitivity, tingling and other discomfort are often disturbed. The skin can be normal, blushing or with a blue tint.
Danger! With the urchinque and swelling of the quinque, there is a possibility of an occurrence of urgent states associated with a respiratory impairment up to its termination. Therefore, with the first nasty, the doctor should seem like a doctor as soon as possible. And if you already know that you have a swelling of Quince, then not thinking about calling to the ambulance.
What provokes the urchinets?
Hardwriter provoke a wide variety of factors that are completely optional associated with allergies. According to studies, in patients with chronic wretchedness, allergies, even with a family tendency to it, is noted with the same frequency as in the overall population.
Provokes the attacks of urticaria most often unusual, exotic food (if you, for example, do not eat sauces, and on the corporate party we were seduced by a regular Olivier, then for you it is exotic). Household chemicals, medicines, cosmetics, too, often provoke disease. In some cases, even the sun's rays, exercise, heat, cold, mechanical pressure on the skin can contribute to the appearance of blisters.
Usually the diagnosis is exhibited on the basis of the characteristic picture of the disease. However, (rarely) blisters come with other diseases - then the diagnosis can be troublesome and non-essential.
Hardwort should be distinguished from syndromes and diseases in which urctural rashes (this is just the same blisters) are one of the symptoms - Leflare syndromes, Visselor - Fanconi, Shelly - Herley, Macla - Wales, Fluorosis, grain scabies, linear migrating miaza, Helmintosis, as well as from diseases in which blisters are a non-permanent symptom: toxicodermia, hemorrhagic vasculitis, herpestic dermatitis Durring, incontinence of pigment, hemoblastosis, venereic lymphopathy, systemic red lupus.
In all this manifold, only a doctor can figure out, the urban man - at all, not at all reason for self-treatment
It is necessary to start with the appeal to an allergist (and if there is no such possibility - to family or general practitioner), but sometimes consultations and other specialists are needed. And yes - even if you have already passed the blisters at the moment, you still need to go to the doctor, since the attack can repeat at any time.
Treatment and prevention
The most important factor in treatment is the exact establishment of the factors that caused the urticule and eliminate them from your life. Antihistamines are also prescribed and sometimes other drugs.
Attention! Independent reception of antihistamine funds is extremely undesirable, and only if there is no real (physical) opportunity to get to the doctor - it is possible to receive modern (no demidarol-diazolines) of non-receptible antihimstamine preparations (usually 1 tablet per day).
Even after the disappearance of symptoms, provoking factors should be avoided. If possible, inform others about your illness. People's chickembes, violent treats "delicious", experiments of cooks, draws, etc., etc. do not contribute to the health of the urticule.
Skin rash, which in shape often resembles burns from nettle leaves, received the name of the urban name in medicine. It is also called the nettle fever, since it is often accompanied by a strong itching, burning and elevated temperature.
This is a skin disease, often allergic nature. In most cases, it has a chronic course, and greatly complicates the life of a person. Permanent itching, Blisters cause irritability, sleep disorder, a person is shy of his appearance, children have problems with study.
In some cases, the rashes are complicated by sharp strong edema, which without providing medical care can threaten the life of a person.
Why ugly arises
This is a systemic disease, the emergence of which can contribute a variety of factors. Often, the urticaries suffer from people inclined to allergic reactions or having burdened heredity in this disease.
The following factors can lead to the emergence of "netpical rash":
- drugs, most often antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents;
- insect bites (bees, wasps);
- viral and chronic infectious diseases;
- intestinal dysbiosis;
- products, among them various spices and nutritional supplements;
- problems with the immune system;
- stressful situations;
- the presence in the organism of helminths or other parasites;
- External physical phenomena (cold, pressure, water, sun, vibration).
The list of causes of chronic urticaria is headed by medicines and food, and the acute form of the disease in most cases arises against the background of viral infections and gastrointestinal diseases.
Women provoke a disease in women can hormonal imbalance in the body. It may be disruption of the menstrual cycle, the reception of hormonal drugs, pregnancy or menopause.
The nettle rash is not always an independent diagnosis. Often it acts as a symptom of other pathologies. For example, such rashes are characteristic of auto-fixed diseases, angioedema swelling of quinque and mastocytosis (blood disease).
Hardwriter: Symptoms of Disease
The main manifestation is the occurrence on the skin of red or pink spots of various shapes, as well as blisters with a diameter of up to several centimeters. The skin may have a small swelling that is temporary. Most often it disappears after 1-2 days. If the edema strikes the deep layers of the dermis or mucous membranes, then the quinque swelling is formed (a sharp increase in some part of the body). This is a very dangerous state that requires immediate assistance.
Rapivine rash is almost always accompanied by a strong itch, sometimes a burning sensation may occur. Combing items of skin leads to infection. In this case, the disease is complicated by the occurrence of frills, bruises, wounds.
A feature of the flow in adults is the suddenness of the emergence and disappearance of all signs of the disease. In most cases, this happens without treatment.
To secondary symptoms, which are not always present, can be attributed:
- Redness and skin swelling.
- Increased temperature.
- Sleep disorder.
Such symptoms strongly affect the overall health and quality of human life. He becomes irritable, the mental activity is reduced, the appetite is broken. Often itching rash leads to mental disorders (it may be high anxiety, apathy, depression) and forced isolation.
Classification: Urban Types
There are many varieties of this dermatological disease. By the nature of the course, the disease is divided into 2 types:
- Acute urticaria is the most common form. It is characterized by a sudden appearance of blisters or empty skin. Usually does not require treatment, as the symptoms take place independently after 2-6 weeks. Called mainly by external causes or food. According to statistics, in the world once there are more than 25% of the population.
- Chronic urticaria - about this form they say when symptoms are preserved over 6 weeks. It is characterized by a wave-like flow of full health periods and sharp exacerbations. Sometimes the disease may not remind itself over 10-20 years. It is often accompanied by an edema quinque and the strongest binding of itch. Inflamed elements can merge, expanding to healthy areas of the skin.
Depending on the reasons that lead to the appearance of blisters, autoimmune, allergic and contact form are isolated. Contact urticaria always arises due to contact with physical factors. It is divided into several types:
- Cold - arises due to low air temperature, cold wind or water;
- thermal - local exposure to high temperature or highly heated air, water;
- Sunny - the cause is uf radiation;
- aquagenic - reaction to water;
- Slowing from pressure - may occur from close clothes, long-term seats, clamping for furniture.
- Upholstery dermographism (mechanical) - arises as irritation in response to the impact on the skin by any subject (towel, handle).
All these types of physical urticaria have chronic flow and may arise suddenly.
Features of the fortune of urticaria in children
For the nursery (up to 2-3 years), a sharp form of the disease is more characteristic. In infants it is often associated with food products.
In the younger and school age, the chronic and acute form of the disease can occur, but the sharp type prevails. In adolescents, the disease increasingly begins to manifest themselves, that is, it acquires a chronic form.
In more than 50% of cases of occurrence, other allergic diseases are also detected in children's symptoms. It can be dermatitis, chronic rhinitis, allergic to medication.
In children, diagnosis can cause difficulties, as it is often associated with other dermatological pathological manifestations. Often rash is striking skin sites near the joints, but there is no restriction in the movements. The child can react to soreness when palpation of an inflamed skin area.
Praquisy rashes in children require special care - it is necessary to refer to the pediatrician.
Diagnosis of the disease
When discoverying on the skin, blisters or inflamed itchy sites need to contact a dermatologist or an immunologist allergist.
The reception and diagnosis of the patient's condition consist of 2 stages.
Collection of Anamnese and Poll
Here the doctor clarifies the nature of the rashes when they appeared, with which they are connected. Does itching or painful sensations - at what time of day they increase. The attention of the localization and frequency of distribution of the rash is given, the doctor checks whether the pigmentation remains after blitching. Be sure to find out about the presence of other allergic reactions in history, and whether such diseases have had such diseases near the next relatives.
Physical examination (external inspection)
A thorough inspection of areas with rashes and blisters is carried out. If necessary, a test for dermographism is carried out, i.e. How the skin reacts to mechanical effects. The activity of the urban is determined according to a specific medical scale. If necessary, skin biopsy for a more detailed microscopic study can be assigned.
To properly choose a treatment regimen. It is necessary to find out the nature of the rash. For this, a series of skin allergies are carried out to identify the non-specific reaction of the body into certain irritants. General laboratory tests are also prescribed for the definition of infections, endocrine pathologies or parasitic diseases.
Considering that the urticaria may be caused by diseases of the internal organs, then the survey is connected by specialists from other profiles. This is a neurologist, an endocrinologist, a gastroenterologist, a pulmonologist, psychiatrist, hematologist.
How to treat Harque
If the contact form of the disease is revealed, the main principle of treatment is to eliminate the provoking factor. In the case of food urticaria, the products are excluded - allergens. This is usually enough to ensure that the rashes stop after 2-3 days.
Medicase therapy is to eliminate symptoms and facilitating the state of the person. The doctor picks up antihistamines individually. Anti-inflammatory media, immunomodulators are also recommended. In severe cases, a course of soothing medicines is required to reduce the level of anxiety and nervousness.
To reduce itching and inflammation, ointments and Menthol-based lotions are used with cooling effect. Mandatory treatment of concomitant diseases.
To reduce the number of exacerbations of chronic urticaria, it is recommended to avoid the conditions that can provoke it. List of recommendations:
- Avoid excessive overheating or supercooling.
- Do not wear cramped clothes.
- Instead of a backpack, use a bag with a handle.
- Exclude long trips and severe physical exertion.
- Observe the diet.
- Always when entering the street, use sunscreens.
- Summer try to wear closed clothes.
- Do not rest in areas with a high level of UV radiation.
When a strong itching occurs, try not to comb the affected areas. Consult your doctor so that it picks up an effective antihistamine. Refuse bad habits, and make up the improvement of immunity.